Day 2 :
Precision BioSciences Inc., USA
Time : 09:00-09:30
John Salmeron is the Director of Plant Sciences at Precision BioSciences, Inc., in Durham NC, USA and has worked in the field of Plant Biotechnology for over 20 years. Prior to joining Precision, he held positions in Business Development and led the agricultural R&D team at Intrexon Corporation, a Leader in Synthetic Biology. He was a Research Portfolio Manager at Syngenta Biotechnology Inc., and held leadership roles directing teams in trait development and genomics. He is the Founder of eiiConsulting, an early-stage biotechnology consulting firm. He has an AB degree from Washington University in St. Louis and a PhD from Duke University.
Genome editing promises to drive a new generation of crop trait products, with reduced development times, low regulatory hurdles, and broad application. The ARCUS technology platform at Precision BioSciences delivers custom meganuclease editing agents with extremely high levels of specificity. Delivered through a rapid cell-based screening process, ARCUS nucleases have been proven effective across a wide range of target sites for gene mutation, deletion and insertion in a variety of crops.rnrn
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Keynote: parasitic castration entomógena in neotropical species : models malpighiaceae of salt marshes
Time : 09:30- 10:00
Ana Cláudia de Macêdo Vieira has completed his PhD at the age of 36 years from University of São Paulo, Brazil. She is associate professor at the School of Pharmacy of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and coordinates the pharmacobotany Laboratory, where she develops research with galls on sandbank environment, control of drugs and medicinal plants. Develops university extension projects with rational use of medicinal plants and unconventional food plants to farmers.
Plant reproductive organs are considered very sensitive to the action of midges and depending on the induced change level, leads to parasitic castration phenomenon causing the prevention of sexual reproduction of plants. Few models of floral galls have been described for neotropical regions, however, the salt marshes of Marica and Grumari, State of Rio de Janeiro, were recorded and described floral galls on Byrsonima sericea DC. and Niedenzuella acutifolia (Cav.) W.R.Anderson (Malpighiaceae). In B. sericea has identified the occurrence of three floral galls. induced by insects. In the gall-induced Diptera larvae developed in the pocket by inhibiting the development of pollen and ovules. In galls induced Lepidoptera, the larva settles on pedicel, excavating the central bud, preventing the formation of the pistil. In the third gall, the larval chamber is formed at the apex of the floral button receptacle, leading to no training in their reproductive structures. In all, the cup and the corolla form ,with varying degrees of atrophy in each type of gall. N. acutifolia occur two floral galls. In galls induced by Diptera, the pistil hypertrophy, forming sheetlike structures where there are the larval chambers. In other galls, only the cup develops and sepals are welded, forming a chamber and no other whorl forms. In the five galls analyzed, changes in varying
degrees in the differentiation of floral structures led to parasitic castration, because none of the flower buds affected by midges are able to complete its development, affecting the reproductive success.
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Keynote: Gall inducers and host plants. What changes may these organisms induce on plant metabolism?
Time : 10:00-10:30
André Luis de Alcantara Guimarães has completed his Ph.D. in Botany from Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and postdoctoral studies at the Faculty of Pharmacy from UFRJ. He is an associate professor of Faculty of Pharmacy from Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. He has published papers in reputed journals of Plant Science, especially with galls and their metabolical changes on host plants, and research with medicinal plants.
Galls are anomalies in plant development of parasitic origin that affect the cellular differentiation or growth and represent a remarkable plant–parasite interaction. The galls may occur in all organs of the host plant, from roots to fruits. However, the existence of galls in reproductive organs and their effects on host plants are seldom described in the literature. In the past decades, many studies aimed to analyze not only the morphological changes induced by these parasites but also the metabolic changes. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved and how these organisms regulate these intricate changes still remain unclear.In our research, we present a novel study of galls in plants of the Neotropical region: the ‘witches’ broom’ galls developed in floral structures of Byrsonima sericea (Malpichiaceae). The affected inflorescences and flower buds showed several morphological and anatomical changes. The sepals , petals and carpels convert ed into leaf-like structures after differentiation and the gynoecium followed new destinations. In this work, we discuss the changes in t he development of reproductive structures caused by witches’ broom galls and their effects on the reproductive success of the host plants. These results, combined with patterns in galls in different Neotropical plant species, suggest that gall inducers may alter gene expression, plant hormones and chemical compounds of host plants on their behalf.